Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling shah was overthrown by a popular revolution.
Iran is located in the southwest of Asia, bounded on the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and the Caspian Sea, on the south by Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, On the west by Turkey and Iraq, and on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan. Geographic coordinates are 32 00 N, 53 00 E.
total: 1.648 million sq km
land: 1.636 million sq km
water: 12,000 sq km
total: 5,440 km
border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km
2,440 km; note - Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)
The climate ranges from subtropical to subpolar. During winter temperature is -37° C (-35° F) in the north of country, and in the south 23° C (73° F).
Summers are hot and humid in the south, but fair and pleasant in the north, and the temperatures rang from 25°C (77° F) to 54° C (130° F).