Iranian Laws & Government

The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran


Chapter III
The Rights of the People


Article 19
All people of Iran, whatever the ethnic group or tribe to which they belong, enjoy equal rights; and color, race, language, and the like, do not bestow any privilege.

Article 20
All citizens of the country, both men and women, equally enjoy the protection of the law and enjoy all human, political, economic, social, and cultural rights, in conformity with Islamic criteria.

Article 21
The government must ensure the rights of women in all respects, in conformity with Islamic criteria, and accomplish the following goals:
  1. Create a favorable environment for the growth of woman's personality and the restoration of her rights, both the material and intellectual;


  2. The protection of mothers, particularly during pregnancy and childbearing, and the protection of children without guardians;


  3. Establishing competent courts to protect and preserve the family;


  4. The provision of special insurance for widows, and aged women and women without support;


  5. The awarding of guardianship of children to worthy mothers, in order to protect the interests of the children, in the absence of a legal guardian.
Article 22
The dignity, life, property, rights, residence, and occupation of the individual are inviolate, except in cases sanctioned by law.

Article 23
The investigation of individuals' beliefs is forbidden, and no one may be molested or taken to task simply for holding a certain belief.

Article 24
Publications and the press have freedom of expression except when it is where there is infringement of the basic tenets of Islam or public rights. In this respect detailed provisions will be laid down by law.

Article 25
Examination of (the contents of), and non-delivery of, letters; recording and divulging of telephone conversations; disclosure of telegraphic or telex communications; censorship, pruning or non-transmission of messages; tapping and bugging and any kind of investigation are all forbidden, unless when so ordered by the law.

Article 26
Political parties, societies, political and craft associations, and Islamic or recognized minority religious associations may be freely brought into being, provided that no violation is involved of the principles of independence, freedom, national unity, Islamic standards, and the foundations of the Islamic Republic. No person may be prevented from joining, or compelled to join, one of the above.

Article 27
Unarmed assemblies and marches may be freely organized, provided that no violation of the foundations of Islam is involved.

Article 28
Every person is entitled to choose the employment he wishes, so long as it is not contrary to Islam or the public interest or the rights of others.

The Government is bound, with due regard for the needs of society for a variety of employment for all men, to create the possibility of employment, and equal opportunities for obtaining it.

Article 29
Every person is entitled to the enjoyment of Social Security. This covers retirement, unemployment, old age, being laid off (AZ KAR OFTADEGI), being without a guardian, casual misfortune, accidents, and occurrences giving rise to the need for health services and medical care and treatment, through insurance etc.

The Government is bound, in accordance with the laws, to use public revenues and the revenue drawn from individual contributions to provide the services and financial support mentioned above for every individual in the country.

Article 30
The Government is bound to make available, tree of charge, educational facilities for all up to the close of the secondary stage, and to expand free facilities for higher education up to the limits of the country's own capacity.

Article 31
Every Iranian individual and family is entitled to a dwelling appropriate to its need. The Government is bound to provide this, giving priority to those whose need is greatest, in particular peasants and workers, in the implementation of this Article.

Article 32
No person may be arrested except according to and in the manner laid down in the law. If someone is detained, the subject matter of the charge, with reasons (for bringing it), must immediately be communicated and explained in writing to the accused. Within at most 24 hours the file on the case and preliminary documentation must be referred to the competent legal authority. Legal procedures must be initiated as early as possible. Anyone infringing this principle will be punished in accordance with the law.

Article 33
No person may be ousted from his residence, or forbidden to reside in the locality of his choice, or compelled to reside In a particular locality, unless the law prescribes this.

Article 34
To ask for justice is the unquestioned right of every individual. Everyone may refer to the competent courts in search of justice. All members of the nation are entitled to have recourse to such courts within their reach. No one may be prevented from recourse to any court to which the law entitles him to refer.

Article 35
In all courts, both parties to the claim are entitled to select a lawyer for themselves. If they do not have the capacity to do this, the means of a lawyer being appointed to act for them must be made available to them.

Article 36
A sentence to punishment and its execution must only be by the decision of a competent court, and by virtue of law.

Article 37
Innocence is the basic principle No person is considered legally guilty, except in cases where his guilt is established in a competent court.

Article 38
Any kind of torture used to extract an admission of guilt or to obtain information is forbidden. Compelling people to give evidence, or confess or take an oath is not allowed. Such evidence or confession or oath is null and void. Any person infringing this principle is to be punished in accordance with the law.

Article 39
Aspersion of the dignity of and respect due to any person who has been arrested or put in detention, or imprisoned or exiled by command of the law is forbidden in any form, and is liable to punishment.

Article 40
No person may exercise his own rights as a means of constraining others or violating the public interest.

Article 41
Citizenship of Iran is the unquestioned right of all Iranians. The Government may not deprive any Iranian of his citizenship, except at their own request, or if they take up citizenship of another country.

Article 42
Foreign nationals may within the limits of the law take up Iranian citizenship. The citizenship of such persons may only be taken away if, possibly, another Government accepts them into citizenship, or at their own request.

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