In 1793 Zaman Shah, a grandson of Ahmad Shah Durrani, won a brief war of succession to become ruler of Afghanistan. The support of Painda Khan, chief of the Baraksai branch of the Durrani tribe, was decisive in his victory. In the next fifty year., the brothers of Zaman shah and the sons of Painda Khan were to dominate the affairs of Afghanistan. The Durrani tribe was very large with several branches and numerous clans. Abmad Shah and his successors belonged to the Sadozai clan, but other clans, such as the Mohammedzai of Painda Khan, were larger and more powerful and this situation caused many problems.
Zaman Shah was determined to restore the royal authority, which had eroded since the death of Ahmad Shah in 1773, and one of his chief projects was the reconquest of the Punjab. Secure control over Indian revenues would have made him more independent of the western tribes. But Zaman was never able to accomplish his goals. If he marched in one direction there would be invasions or revolts from the opposite direction. He had to keep moving between the Punjab and Khorasan. Zaman also had to face continuing opposition from the great tribal chiefs. In 1799, after discovering a plot to depose him, he executed several tribal leaders, including Painda Khan. Painda Khan's oldest son, Fateh Fhan, escaped and joined Zaman's brother, Mahmud, who had previously fled to Persia.
Mahmud had revolted unsuccessfully several times with Persian backing, but now with Fateh Khan's help he was able to defeat Zaman who was captured and blinded. Mahmud's position was insecure however. Persian invasions threatened, the tribes were discontented, and another brother of Zaman, Shuja-ul-Mulk, was in arms against him. In 1803 Shuja succeeded in toppling Mahmud after three years in power. But Shuja's rule was effective only in Kabul and Peshawar since Mahmud's brother Firuz held Herat, and Fateh Khan controUed the country around Kandahar. Mahmud escaped from the prison where he had been confined and in 1809 he and Fateh Khan defeated Shuja, who eventually fled to India where he was given a pension by the British, and Mabmud returned to power.
As Mahmud's right hand, Fateh Khan was given a free rein and he energetically suppressed rebellious tribes and provinces and in 1816 he was given an opportunity to extend his power to Herat. Herat had been practically independent under Firuz-ed-Din, who was appointed governor in 1801 by his brother Mahmud. The revolts and upheavals at Kabul made this quasi-autonomy possible, but at the same time they prevented Kabul from aiding Herat against Persia. Firus was obliged to acknowledge Persian sovereignty and pay tribute from 1800 to 1811. When the Persians marched on Herat again in 1816, Firuz appealed to Kabul for aid. Fateh Khan came to Herat with an army although the resulting battle with the Persians was indecisive. Fateh's supporters then seized control of Herat, deposing Firuz and all his officials. There was some plundering and Fateh's brother, Dost Mohammed Khan, even entered Firuz's Harem.
During his years in power Fateh Khan had made many enemies including Mabmud's son Kamran, and most recently Firuz. At this point Fath Ali Shah of Persia sent Mahmud an ultimatum to dispose of Fateh Khan or face a massive Persian invasion. These combined factors, persuaded Mahmud to sacrifice his vizier. Fateh Khan was seized, blinded, kept prisoner, and finally cut to pieces in 1818. Like Zaman, Mabmud had destroyed the man who was keeping him on the throne and his fall was equally swift. Fateh Khan's brothers led a general revolt and assumed control themselves while Mabmud, Kamran, and Firuz fled to Herat.
At first the brothers offered the throne to Shuja but when he would not agree to their conditions they parceled the provinces out amongst themselves. Their mutual amity did not last long. In 1822 total chaos ensued as they began fighting among themselves and each province became in effect an independent principality. Kabul was the main prize and Dost Mohammed Khan finally secured it in 1826. The rise of Dost Mohammed provided some improvement in stability but only at Kabul. None of his brothers could ever get a solid grip on their provinces. Herat was also the scene of power struggles. By 1824 control had passed into the hands of Kamran. His father Mabmud, became a puppet and remained so until his death in 1829.
These continued civil wars and the division of royal authority were disastrous for Afghanistan. Herat was cast adrift and now isolated and surrounded by enemies. On the west, the Persians were eager to make good their long-standing claim to the city. On the east, only the disunity of Fateh Khan's brothers prevented them from avenging him. Herat might have fallen to either one if it had not first begun to arouse the interest of outside powers.
Notes to Chapter 3
The following table of the Durrani tribe is based on Ferrier, History of the Afghans, pp. 9-10.
The few Indian provinces Zaman did control produced the largest share of his revenue. Hari Ram Gupta, "Afghanistan at Shah Zaman's Accession 1793," Indian Historical Records Commission Proceedings, XVIll (1942), 130.
The summary of these Afghan wars up to 1809 is based chiefly on accounts in Elphinstone, Caubul, II, pp. 308-52; and Ferrier, History of the Afghans, pp. 108-86.
Ferrier, History, pp. 151-156.
Ferrier, pp. 151-156; Watson, History, pp. 193-197.
Literally. John W. Kaye, History of the War in Afghanistan, I (London: W. H. Allen and Co., 1878), pp. 111-112.