History of Iran


Historic Periods & Events
The Elamite Empire, 2500 - 644 BCE
By: Cyrus Shahmiri

The Art of Elamites, (The Art of Ancient Iran of Pre-Islamic era)
By: Edith Porada


The Median Empire, 728 - 550 BCE

Ecbatana, (The capital of the ancient Median empire)
By: Jona Lendering

Rhagae, (Religious center in ancient Median empire)
By: Jona Lendering


The Achaemenid Empire, 550 - 330 BCE

The Cyrus the Great Cylinder
The first known Charter of Rights of Nations, 539 BCE.
Edited by: Shapour Ghasemi

Cyrus the Great: The decree of return for the Jews, 539 BCE
Edited by: Charles F. Horne

The Art of Achaemenids, (The Art of Ancient Iran of Pre-Islamic era)
By: Edith Porada

Eye of the king, (Inspector in the Achaemenid empire)
By: Jona Lendering

Pasargadae, (Oldest of the capitals of the ancient Achaemenid empire)
By: Jona Lendering

Darius the Great's Inscription at Naqshe Rostam

Words of Darius the Great in Bisotoun's Inscription

Susa, (Favorite residence of the Persian king Darius I the Great)
By: Jona Lendering

Achaemenid Army
By: Professor A. Sh. Shahbazi

Immortals, (Elite regiment in the ancient Achaemenid empire)
By: Jona Lendering

Persepolis, (or Parse, ancient capital of Persian -Achaemenid- Empire)

Pictures of Persepolis, Ancient Capital of Persian -Achaemenid- Empire

Royal Road, 5th century BCE
By: Jona Lendering

The Persian Wars
By: Professor Livio C. Stecchini

Histories of Herodotus, (A reference of Persian Empire of Achaemenian era)
By: Herodotus of Halicarnassus

Cyropaedia of Xenophon, The Life of Cyrus The Great
By: Xenophon

Anabasis of Xenophon, (A reference of Persian Empire of Achaemenian era)
By: Xenophon

The Anabasis of Alexander: The Battle of Gaugamela
By: Arrian (Lucius Flavius Arrianus)

The Battle of Gaugamela
By: Ernst Badian

Persian Syria 538-331 BCE; Two Centuries of Persian Rule
By: Adnan Bounni

Palestine Under the Persians 539-332 BCE
By: Dr David F. Graf


Seleucid Empire, 306 - c.150 BCE
By: Jens Jakobsson

Iran After the Death of Alexander and Its Resistance to Hellenism
By: Maryam Hedayati


The Parthian Empire, 247 BCE - 224 CE

The Art of Parthians, (The Art of Ancient Iran of Pre-Islamic era)
By: Edith Porada

Parthian Army
By: Professor A. Sh. Shahbazi

Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn), The capital of the Parthians and the Sassanids
By: Jona Lendering

General Surena, The Hero of Carrhae
By: Shapour Suren-Pahlav


The Sassanid Empire, 224 - 642 CE

A Review of Sassanid Images and Inscriptions
By: Asghar Mahmoudabadi

The Karnamak-e Ardeshir-e Papakan
By: Charles F. Horne

Emperor Ardeshir and the cycle of history
Dr. Richard Frye

Economy In Sassanian Iran
Rika Gyselen

The Art of Sassanians, (The Art of Ancient Iran of Pre-Islamic era)
By: Edith Porada

Sassanian Army
By: Professor A. Sh. Shahbazi

Manichaeism, (The Forgotten Religion of Sassanid Era)
By: I.J.S. Taraporewala

Mazdakism, (A religious and social movement of Sassanid Era)
By: I.J.S. Taraporewala


Islamic Conquest, 636 CE

Saffarid Dynasty, 861 - 900 CE

Samanid Dynasty, 819 - 999 CE
By: Cyrus Shahmiri

Turks and Mongols, 10th - 15th century CE

Ziyarids Dynasty, 927 - 1043 CE

Ghaznavid Dynasty, 962 - 1186 CE

Ismailieh (Assassins), 11th century CE

Safavid Empire, 1502 - 1736
By: Shapour Ghasemi

Afsharid Dynasty (Nader Shah), 1736 - 1757

Zand Dynasty, 1757 - 1794


Qajar Dynasty, 1794 - 1925

The Siege of Herat 1837 - 1838
By: John Carl Nelson

The Qajar class structure
By: Ahmad Ashraf and Ali Banuazizi

Pictures of Qajar kings and era

Constitutional Revolution, 1906 - 1911

Pictures of Constitutional Revolution, 1906 - 1911


Pahlavi Dynasty, 1925 - 1979
By: Shapour Ghasemi

Oil Nationalization, 1949 - 1951

A short account of American planned 1953 Coup
Operation code-name: TP-AJAX

The post-Mosaddeq era and the Shah's White Revolution


Islamic Revolution of 1979 and Establishment of Islamic Republic of Iran

Pictures of 1979 Revolution of Iran

Iran after the victory of 1979's Revolution

Iran-Iraq War 1980 - 1988, (A short account of Iraqi invasion)

Pictures of Iran-Iraq War 1980-88