The province of Tehran is 18,909 km2 (7,301 sq mi) in the north of the central plateau of Iran. This province has common borders with the Mazandaran province from north, Qom province from south, Semnan province from east and Qazvin province from west. The metropolis of Tehran is not only the capital city of the province, but is also the capital of Iran. As of 2005, this province includes thirteen townships, forty-three municipalities, and 1358 villages.
The province gained importance when Tehran was claimed the capital by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar Dynasty in 1778. Today Tehran ranks in the top 20 metropolitan cities of the world in size.
The province of Tehran has 12,147,543 inhabitants and is Iran's most densely populated region. Approximately 86.5% reside in urban areas and 13.5% in rural areas of the province.
Tehran is the commercial heart of Iran and has more than 17,000 industrial units which is about 26% of all units in Iran. The province contains almost 30% of Iran's economy, and comprises 40% of Iran's consumer market. The province has three hydro dams namely Latiyan, Lar, and Amir Kabir as well as two natural lakes, providing the water supply of Tehran and the province.
Elahiyeh District, The City of Tehran (anno 2004)
The province contains 170 mines, over 330 square kilometers of forests, and over 12800 square kilometers of pasture. The largest rivers of this province are Karaj River and Jajrud River.
The highest point of the province is Mount Damavand at an elevation of 5,678 m, and the lowest point of the province being the plains of Varamin, 790 m above sea level.
Mountain ranges such as The Alborz span the north; Savad Kooh and Firooz Kooh are located in the north east; Lavasanat, Qarah Daq, Shemiranat, Hassan Abad and Namak Mountains are in the southern areas; Bibi Shahr Banoo and Alqadr are situated in the south east and the heights of Qasr-e-Firoozeh being located to the east of the province.
The climate of Tehran province in the southern areas is warm and dry, but in the mountain vicinity is cold and semi-humid, and in the higher regions is cold with long winters. The hottest months of the year are from mid-July to mid-September when temperatures range from 28°-35° C and the coldest months experience 7° to -5 C around December-January. Tehran city has moderate winters and hot summers. Average annual rainfall is approximately 400 mm, the maximum being during the winter season.
The regions such as the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains, especially in the mountains, valleys, and rivers and artificial lakes formed behind the great dams of Amir Kabir, Latiyan and Lar along with natural lakes of Jaban and Tarr provide considerable recreation for the province.
Moreover, due to excessive snowfall in the northern areas of the province during the winter season, the Alborz Mountains form an excellent environment for winter sports such as skiing. Dizin, Shemshak, and Tochal are the most popular skiing resorts.
Dizin Ski resort, Alborz Mountain range, north of Tehran
Mount Damavand (5,678 m), Alborz Mountain range
Toghrol Tower, Ray, Iran. 13th century, Seljuki era.
Tehran province has several archeological sites clearly indicating settlements several thousand years old. Until 300 years ago township of Ray on the south of the city of Tehran was the most prominent of the cities of the province. Tehran has over 1500 historical sites of cultural significance registered with Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization. The oldest of these in Tehran province are the remains of two sites in Firouzkuh region that date back to the 4th millennia BC.
Since the city of Tehran designated as the capital of Iran by 1778 it has rose to become the largest city and cultural, economical center of Iran as well. During the past 200 years it has been home to many reputed scholars, writers, poets and artists, both those who have lived and those who are born in Tehran.
* HASC : Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Codes * ISO : Codes from ISO 3166-2 * Dom : Province Domain codes
*** Data's and information provided on this page are released by the Office of the Provincial Governor (http://www.ostan-th.ir) based on 2001 (1380) census.