The province of Markazi is 29,406 km2 (11,354 sq mi) in the west of the central plateau of Iran, and its center is Arak. The present boundaries of the province date back to the 1980s, when the province was split into the current Markazi and the Tehran Province. This province is cold in winters and moderate in summers.
Arak is the capital of the province and is 295 km. from Tehran. This city is one of the industrial centers of the country. The Tehran - Khuzestan railroad crosses this city. The city of Arak was established during the reign of Fathali Shah Qajar. At first this city was called "Ghaleh Soltan Abad" but later in 20th century its name was changed to Arak.
Since its establishment Arak has faced several changes. Until the early 20th century, Arak was a military city and the base for generals. But later the military status of the city reduced and gradually became a commercial and industrial city.
Bazar of Arak; early 19th century, Qajar era
Once the World War I broke out and the Qajar dynasty cracked down, Russian forces occupied Saveh, Soltan Abad, and the nearby regions. When the World War I and the political changes of the country ended, Soltan Abad also faced the changes and its physical appearance changed immensely. This process continued to the next decades. Presently, Arak is one of the important industrial cities of Iran.
Saveh is a city in Markazi province and located to the east of the province; and it is 140 km from Tehran. Its climate is moderate to warm.
Saveh is one of the archaeological cities of the Sassanid period and in the Parthian era, used to be called "Saavakineh" and was one of the most important points connecting roads. In the 7th century BCE, it was one of the forts and bases of Medes kingdom.
The city and region of Saveh was always the winter retreat of Seljuq and Deylamid Monarches.
During the Seljuq period Saveh reached the most flourishing period of its life, and became the center for the chief of Saljuqi tribes, who were called "Atabak".
Great Mosque of Saveh; 12th century Seljuq era
During the disastrous invision of Mongols in the 13th century CE, Saveh received great damages; but during the Ilkhanids this city was rebuilt again.
In Timurid and the Qoyunlu era, again Saveh was subjected to looting and destruction as result of rivalry among princes. During the Safavids, Saveh became an important settlement for the tribes related to Safavids such as Qezelbashs and Shahsavans, and the city started flourishing.
When Tehran was made capital by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, Saveh lost its importance; and in mid 19th century its habitants began to migrate to Tehran.
Saveh is very famous for its best and delicious grenade apples.
* HASC : Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Codes * ISO : Codes from ISO 3166-2 * Dom : Province Domain codes